As I said earlier, the marketing policy should reflect the company's activities in the field of market promotion, intra-company development related to the market activities of the company.
It is logical to assume that the marketing policy includes the following sections:
promotion policy on the market.
We will be guided by this when describing the marketing policy: describing the marketing characteristics of a product, determining its market price, and, in accordance with this, describing various methods of promotion, until the final stage - marketing, the stage at which the company's profit from the sale of goods is formed.
However, let's start over ... What is the difference between a product (products) and a product? In many marketing forums in which I had to take part in such questions I caused constant irritation among the forumfors: “There are“ people ”digging into word formation and questions far from practical marketing” - indispensable remarks on such questions.
And yet, the question is very important in terms of marketing.
The product is the first principle of the product, which carries the essence for which the product was prepared for the market and its original value. Abstruse ... Davat about nuts. A nut lying somewhere in a large box among hundreds of people like it in the manufacturer’s warehouse does not have any commercial value. But let's get it to the store, put it on the counter, describe its merits, that is, “support the product” and ... lo and behold, it is already needed and someone is ready to pay for it.
Product support is a set of measures for transportation, packaging, storage of the product. The product support group includes the following measures: everything that helps the product to maintain its consumer qualities prior to sale (conservation, packaging, storage), measures for the correct use of the product (instructions, method of preparation), and related products.
And finally, the product becomes a product when applying marketing tools to it, a sort of beautiful wrapper, after which you want to buy the product. Marketing tools include:
advertising and promotion
adjusted sales in the marketing channel
loyalty to the product, knowledge of the product
Thus, a product for a marketer consists of a product, its support and marketing tools. On the example of saccharin, this can be shown in the form of components: product - saccharin, sugar substitute, support - packaging, transportation, storage, application conditions, marketing tools - packaging design, advertising campaign.
Commodity policy of the enterprise.
At this stage, marketers, using market research, competitors and consumers, develop a program of enterprise activities in the production of goods (suggest which product will use the maximum demand, meet the needs of the buyer, determine its quality compared to competitors), establish the rules for creating new products predict the life cycle of the product.
Thus, a product for a marketer consists of a product, its support and marketing tools.
In detail about the commodity policy we will talk in the article "Commodity policy of the company" in the "policy" section. Here, I would like to specifically focus on the fact that, depending on the liquid cycle of the product, the goods need to be separated and described in the marketing policy and guided by the concept of the product life cycle, and at least separate new products.
The concept of product life cycle
With the creation of a new product, its life cycle begins, which is characterized by the following stages:
Research and development. At this stage, the emergence of the goods, his ideas. The sale of goods is still zero, arrive negative.
Implementation. At this stage, the product begins its promotion to the consumer, there is an active advertising campaign, but with increasing sales, profits continue to grow in a negative direction.
Stage of growth. The most favorable stage for the manufacturer. The company receives a significant profit, the sale of goods continues to grow.
Stage of maturity. The goods are produced in large quantities, sales are no longer growing at such a high rate, profits are gradually declining, as competition is felt.
Stage recession. Sales fall sharply, the company ceases to produce goods, profits are very low.
When developing a long-term product policy, it is necessary to take into account that the firm will have the maximum profit from the sale of goods only when the life cycles of various goods overlap.
Product policy in terms of the description of a new product should take into account the activities of creating a new product.
First of all, you should determine which product can be called new:
A product that has no analogues on the market is naturally called a new product. Anyway, there are very few similar products on the market.
A product that has a qualitative difference from its predecessor of the analog product.
This product is new to a specific market.
An old product that was already on the market, but which has found a new use for itself.
ENaturally, as noted above, when formulating a marketing policy, it is necessary to pay special attention to such products: A new product idea is needed. Sources of ideas can be consumers themselves. In fact, it is important for a marketer to learn how to listen at this stage of creating a new product, since ideas can prompt the shortcomings of competitors. It requires screenings and a choice of ideas. This stage occurs by two criteria: everything that is not related to the commercial purpose of the enterprise is removed, everything that does not correspond to the production capacity of the enterprise is withdrawn. It is necessary to create a prototype of a new product, and it is important to remember that unnoticed errors will cause huge losses at this stage subsequently. The release of a trial batch of goods to a limited market and the study of this market. It is necessary to choose the place and time for the mass release of goods. So, we can formulate the basic law of the commodity part of the marketing policy: while one new product is marketed and is being actively bought, the next new product must be developed at the same time so that the company does not stand idle and for the sake of increasing its profitability and efficiency. Company policyIn the pricing policy section includes a description of the price positioning of goods from retail prices, all pricing stages, the tactics of determining the initial price of goods, the tactics of price correction for CTRH posrednikov.Vidy tsenV depending on the supply channel (realizable chain) there are several kinds of prices: Wholesale prices of enterprises - the price at which the company sells to resellers. This price consists of the cost of production and profit of the enterprise. The distributor price is the price at which the wholesale intermediary sells the goods of the dealer network. The price includes the cost, profit and supply and sales discount (wholesale supplier costs). Retail price is the price at which the product is sold to the final consumer. It also includes a trade discount (retailer costs). When describing the pricing system, it must be remembered that the incentive system of intermediaries in the form of additional discounts, bonuses to the general pricing system from price market positioning (retail price) has no relation to the general pricing system is a product support tool just described above. Pricing strategy Pricing strategy is a choice of strategy by a company, according to which the initial price of goods must change Ara with maximum success for him, in the process of conquering the market. Different strategies should be distinguished depending on the product (new or already existing). The strategy of skim pricing involves first selling the product at a very high price for that stratum of society that does not care about financial collapse, then the price gradually decreases to the middle class, and then to the level of mass consumption; The price increase strategy is effective only when demand for products is growing steadily, competition is minimized, the buyer recognizes the product; penetration pricing ing); Sliding price strategy (slide-down pricing); Preemptive pricing strategy. Correction of prices would not be slim our pricing and positioning strategy, the market tries to intervene and constantly strive to influence the manufacturer, forcing him to adjust the price by different methods. I know, probably, eight basic methods for price correction, which helps the company to respond intelligently to market intervention. You can set a fixed price, but at the same time somewhat change the quality of the product; enes by segment. According to this method, prices differ in market segments, mainly in the consumer segment. The psychological method of pricing. When using this method, the firm (mainly a retailer) relies on the psychology of the buyer. (99.9 that is almost 100); Method of step differentiation. Marketers identify such steps (intervals) between prices within which consumer demand remains unchanged. The method of redistribution of assortment costs. This method takes into account the diversity of the assortment of the same product, which leads to insignificant costs, but a significant increase in the price. The method of redistribution of nomenclatural costs. In this case, the firm pre-establishes a low price for the main product, but more high for related products. The method of franking. Franking - payment for the transportation of goods from the seller to the buyer. Here the price is composed of the cost of goods, real transportation costs and profits. Discount method. This method, I mentioned above, is used to stimulate sales of products. Discounts may be due to both the quantity of goods purchased and for the previous payment. So, when determining the price, when forecasting its further change, when adjusting it, it is very important for the company not only not to miscalculate, but also to raise the price thatIt can directly affect the demand and attitudes towards the firm of buyers. Therefore, marketers analyze all changes and develop strategies for setting and adjusting prices, which contribute to increased profitability and efficiency. Sales policy The system for building sustainable sales is one of the most important in the marketing policy of an enterprise. In the sales policy - the company's marketing policy section reflects the issues of choosing the most optimal sales channel, product marketing method, which, if used effectively, will undoubtedly increase the company's profit. A special place in marketing policy is given to the description of sales through the sales channel: sales channel incentive system. Sales channelOne of the points of marketing policy of the enterprise is the choice of the optimal sales channel. The distribution channel (distribution) of a product is a system of interested intermediaries entering into a relationship, the subject of which is a certain product. The use of intermediaries in the sphere of circulation is advantageous primarily for manufacturers. In this case, they have to deal with a limited number of stakeholders in sales. Among the main reasons for the use of intermediaries, the following can be identified: the organization of the process of product distribution requires certain financial resources; the creation of an optimal system of product distribution requires adequate knowledge and experience in the field the market for its product, trading methods and distribution; the distribution channel takes over and helps to give someone else the right in the ownership of a particular product or service on the way from the manufacturer to the consumer. The distribution channel can be interpreted as the path of movement of goods from producers to consumers. The participants of distribution channels perform a number of functions that contribute to the successful solution of marketing requirements. You can read more about distribution channels in the section "About the sales channel". Methods of marketing goods. Wholesale sales. There are several levels of distribution channel distribution, the simplest of which are as follows: manufacturer - retailer - consumer and manufacturer - distributor - retailer - consumer. This includes the concept of the wholesale method of sales. The width of the distribution channel is the number of independent objects of the sales process at a certain stage, for example, the number of wholesalers of goods. Methods of marketing goods. Retail sales. Retail trade sells goods to the population for personal consumption, organizations, enterprises, institutions for collective consumption or household needs. At the same time, consumer goods can be sold from warehouses of wholesale intermediaries, in specialized brand stores of the manufacturer, procurement centers, workshops, studio etc. It is necessary to describe the role of marketing firms in the implementation of the following retail functions: A study of the situation on the commodity market Nke; Definition of supply and demand for specific types of goods; Acceptance, storage, labeling of goods; Search for goods needed for retail; other functions. Retail trade, taking into account the specifics of customer service, is divided into formats, types. Details can be read here. Marketing promotion of a product Under promotion is understood a set of various activities to bring information about the merits of the product to potential consumers and stimulate their desire to buy it. Modern organizations use complex communication systems to maintain contacts with intermediaries, customers, with various public organizations and layers. Promotion of a product is carried out by using advertising, sales promotion methods, personal selling and public relations methods in a certain proportion. Advertising - any paid the form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, products and services, carried out by a specific customer. Within the framework of marketing, advertising should: firstly, prepare the market (consumer) for a favorable perception of a new product, secondly, maintain demand at a high level at the stage of mass production of goods, and thirdly, expand the sales market. Depending on the stage of life the product cycle changes the scale and intensity of advertising, the ratio between prestigious advertising (advertising of the exporting company, the competence of its personnel, etc.) and product (ie, advertising a particular product); the ways of its distribution are also changing, its arguments are updated, more recent, more original ideas are selected. The following types of advertising are distinguished: Informative advertising is used to inform consumers about new products in order to create initial demand; Incentive advertising is used to create a demand for a product for a selected consumer segment by suggesting to consumers that the advertised product is the best inwithin their means; Comparative advertising directly or indirectly compares a particular brand of product with other brands. See more information about the types of advertising in the dictionary of the marketing specialist. Sales promotion Sales promotion is short-term promotional measures that promote the sale or marketing of products and services. If the ad calls: "Buy our product", then sales promotion is based on the call: "Buy it now." You can consider sales promotion in more detail, bearing in mind that it includes: consumer incentives; trade promotion; sales promotion of the company itself. Exhibitions and fairs Their important advantage is the ability to present the goods to the buyers in their original form as well as in action. In any case, visitors come to the pavilions with a clear intention to learn something new for themselves, and this attitude actively contributes to the introduction of new products and services on the market. Skillful exhibition activity plays no less, and sometimes a greater role than the publication of advertisements in the press about industrial goods. However, work at the exhibition will be effective only when it is conducted strictly according to plan and purposefully. Specialists who are on the stand must clearly understand for what commercial purposes the company participates in the exhibition, and do everything in their power to achieve this goal. Personal Sales Under personal selling, an oral presentation of the goods is understood with a view to marketing it in one or two several potential buyers. This is the most effective tool for promoting a product at certain stages of its sales, especially to create a favorable attitude among customers to the products offered, primarily to industrial products. However, this is the most expensive method of promotion. PR involves creating good relations with various state and public structures and layers by creating a favorable opinion about the company and its products and by neutralizing adverse events and rumors. Public relations also includes communication with the press, the dissemination of information about the company's activities, lobbying activities in legislative and government bodies with the aim of making or canceling certain decisions, explanatory work regarding the company's position, its products, and social role. contributing to the maximum sale of goods, which helps the entrepreneur to better understand the buyer's preferences and choose the most effective type of sales zheniya. Without knowledge of the technology of promotion to a modern company, it is impossible to survive, because without advertising (one of the means of promotion), it’s not just nobody will know.